JONAH SALZ, ASAKO SOGA & MASAHITO SHIBA
Tradition meets Technohlogy: Integrating Japanese Noh & New Technology in Shakespeare’s Macbeth
This paper addresses technical and aesthetic
problems encountered in adapting Shakespeare’s Macbeth to the
noh stage, used for the six hundred year-old dance-drama form. In July,
2009 the Noho Theatre Group created a dancing Witch and Ghost for
Sleep no More, Lady Macbeth’s Nightmare
by integrating motion-capture technology to create 3D computer
graphic animations set to automatic choreography, which were then projected
on a screen. Sleep no More, performed bilingually in English
and Japanese, by noh and kyogen actors with modern actors and dancers,
was given a public rehearsal July 17th at the Oe Noh Theatre,
Kyoto. This paper examines the problems in screen placement, interaction
of performers with technology, as well as performer’s reflections
and audience reception.
At first glance, the medieval Japanese
masked dance-theatre noh theatre remains a famous example of bare-stage
minimalist theatre, hand-hewn and time-stained. Texts and masks used
today were created centuries ago. The stages took their present dimensions
and form around 400 years ago, at adapted temples or shrines, purpose-built
outdoor platform performances on riverbanks, or within castle courtyards
(Amano 2007). They are highly utilitarian as well as aesthetically pleasing:
an angled bridgeway, leading from the dressing room and `mirror room`
standby space, has become an effective playing area. The main stage,
which retains the temple’s inverted-V roof and pillars, is a raised
open cube that both frames and elevates the characters’ portrayed.
Sets are minimal, made from cloth-wrapped bamboo frames; elegant fans
and lacquer stools are commonly
the only properties.
Yet despite its apparent minimalism,
noh contains complex elements of high technical achievement used for
delicate and powerful expressivity. The masks are elegant art-works,
delicately painted faces that some believe to be originally death-masks,
yet that shift expression according to slight nuances of tilts and movements
of the dancing performer. They
are carved with great care in
the eyes and mouth, while behind them are rivulets to channel sweat,
and a hollowed out chin for the actor’s jaw to enter. This keeps the
mask close to the face for realism and stability, yet does not cut off
breathing or move when he speaks. Their vision confined to a narrow
tunnel seen through the eyeholes, actors use the smooth floorboards
and pillars as landmarks to navigate their way around the open stage.
They manipulate their position along the bridge and main stage in a
naturally cinematic way, effectively framing
establishing shots, zooms, and pans.
Without electrical amplification, noh
actors could perform before thousands of spectators with the use of
`high technology` tools developed over the centuries. The hollowed masks
and special singing style create a resonant funnel of the mask, supplemented
by a powerful, seated chorus who sing for the lead actor during much
of the dancing. Earth-filled urns carefully tuned and placed below the
stage resonate with the stamps and drums above. Flat stones in the temple
garden are employed as acoustical tools, bouncing sound from stage to
distant audiences. The roofs reflect song; the slanted back-roof of
the musician’s area and back wall erected even for outdoor performances
similarly provides an acoustical backboard (Komparu 1987).
In the past, performing before spectators
on three sides and occasionally three levels, actors took full advantage
of daytime lighting. The shadow beneath the roof protected performers
from the elements, while the garden stones reflected light to the luminous
masks or bare faces. Actors facing frontally provided both audio and
visual clarity on the raised stage. The bridge, originally a passage
from backstage to onstage, became a vital acting area, enabling the
actor to adjust his position along it and on the main stage to control
the perception of proportions. Three pine-trees of decreasing size in
front of the bridgeway fosters this illusion of depth, while some stages
further this distancing/proximalizing effect with a slight `rolling
drum-stick` slant from mainstage to curtain, and upstage to downstage.
CONTEMPORARY INDOOR/OUTDOOR THEATRES
Theatres moved from make-shift riverbank
or courtyard stages to indoor theatres during the Meiji Restoration
(1867-1911), reflecting changes of patronage and influence from European
opera-houses. Yet the noh stage underwent remarkably little change in
dimensions, remaining much the same today as their 1600 counterparts.
Most theatres attempt to simulate general, outdoor daytime lighting
with somewhat obtrusive fluorescent bulbs and spotlights. Yet even inside
concrete or glass buildings, the noh theatre retains its connection
to nature: a stone garden separates spectators from the stage; planted
or painted pine and bamboo trees recall the natural original outdoor
settings, while the painted pine-tree on the back wall is a reminder
of noh’s shamanistic origins conveniently serving as centering scenery.
Yet recently noh theatres have adapted
modern stage and front-of-house equipment to satisfy contemporary audiences.
As the majority of spectators are now middle-aged or older, most theatres
have replaced tatami-mat floor cushions with comfortably padded theatre
seats. Some have installed second floor balconies for less expensive
student seats. In addition to overhead fluorescent lighting, many theatres
feature spotlights along the bridgeway, and from the pillars and walls.
As in many modern theatres, wall-affixed video-cameras provide lobby
patrons and actors in backstage dressing rooms a view of the stage,
while microphones and speakers are available for announcements.
A few theatres have gone beyond these
basic accessions to attract younger and international audiences. The
Nagoya theatre projects English subtitles on screens during some performances;
the National Noh Theatre began subtitles on the back of seats, in Japanese,
Chinese, and English, during their sponsored performances. The Kongo
Noh Theatre features a modern lighting system, with color filters used
to create various effects. However these are the exceptions, and it
is not clear whether these innovations of the past decade will really
become the rule in the majority of conservative family-run theatres.
By far the biggest experiments in modern
noh have occurred with the outdoor noh performances, known as `takigi`
(torchlit) noh. Temporary noh stages are constructed in front of romantically
lit castles or temples, applying the concept of `borrowed scenery` from
garden design, reviving an ancient Nara rite. At twilight, priests perform
an ersatz `lighting ritual` of the logs, whose flames play mysteriously
on the ancient masks. Modern lighting, sometimes hidden in the bamboo
used as `pillars` in the four corners of the stage, supplements the
torchlight. To appeal to first-time spectators of up to 5000, even laser
projections on giant stadium-screens are used. Inevitably, another throwback
has been attempted, `candlelit noh,`where flaring candles are the only
light on the luminous masks and gorgeous costumes (although these are
supplemented by dim rear spotlights, sometimes including blue or orange
filters). Despite these outdoor spectacles’ recent popularity, connoisseurs
still prize the bare-stage day-lit minimalism of the traditional stage,
which has served this art well for so many centuries.
THE NOHO THEATRE GROUP’S Sleep no More Project
Noho’s Sleep no
More was the first attempt to integrate projected video and animated
images on the noh stage.i The Noho Theatre Group was founded
by kyogen master Shigeyama Akira and myself in 1981 to employ the structure
and techniques of noh and kyogen theatre to interpret Western texts.
Noho has interpreted texts of Shakespeare, Yeats, and Beckett at studio
theatres and noh stages in Japan, and internationally at the Avignon
Festival, Edinburgh Fringe, Beckett Centennial celebrations in Paris,
and numerous tours throughout the U.S. A core group of performers is
supplemented for particular productions of short, bilingual works.
SLEEP NO MORE was adapted by Salz
from Shakespeare’s Macbeth, framed as a psycho-drama by the
Doctor and Gentlewoman trying to cure the Lady Macbeth’s troubled
sleepwalking.ii Noh stories are often structured as memory-plays,
with spirits in the present re-visiting and re-enacting scenes of dramatic
conflict in the past. Often a villager or priest happens upon a mysterious
dwelling or person, stimulating the protagonist to reveal him or herself
in a danced climax. In Noho’s version, the re-enactment of the scenes
leading to the murder of King Duncan brings Lady Macbeth to the realization
of her guilt, and expiation through suicide. The hour-long play was
performed by British and Japanese performers, as well as a noh actor
as Lady Macbeth, and a kyogen traditional comedian as the Porter; a
noh shoulder-drum and Western flute provided accompaniment.
VIRTUAL VS. ACTUAL
Projecting video and animated images
on a screen during a live performance may be rather passé in the world
of contemporary theatre, ballet, and opera. For the orthodox noh world,
Sleep no More project represented an extraordinary effort to extend
the traditional stage into virtual space.iii On a stage where
traditional musicians still use charcoal braziers to stretch drumheads
before performances, and stage assistants use traditional tools for
up to twenty minutes to methodically thread a bell-cord through a rooftop
pulley for a particular property, such electronic gadgetry is truly
Key to the integrity and flexibility
of Sleep no More was Kita school actor Matsui Akira. Starring
in Noho’s At the Hawk’s Well (1986), Ophelia (1987),
Rockabye (1992), and Agave (2006), he has also worked in
English noh plays of Richard Emmert, and productions with foreign dancers
and directors abroad for decades.
In the last few years, Matsui has struck
out boldly into the virtual vanguard, participating in research and
artistic projects that utilize his special knowledge and skills. At
the King’s College/Durham University’s The Body and the Mask in
Ancient Theatre Space in 2006, his movements were captured by both motion-capture
and green-screen chromoscopy for research into the use of the Greek
and Roman masks on reconstructed stages. Matsui performed in 2007 at
Noh Encounter, part of the Leipzig Ohayo Japan project, with a butoh
dancer to video projections created by
Yoann Trellu (http://www.keyframed.org/
Our first and in many ways pivotal decision
was how and where to put the projection screen. It needed to be large
enough to project human-size images that would be compelling along-side
onstage actors, yet light enough to be supported by stands that would
not damage the wood floor. We decided on boards cut to form a 1.6m by
2.2m rectangle, taped onto room-dividers on cushioned stands.
Although the Oe Noh Theatre family was
considerably understanding, there were some restrictions: nothing hard
should rest on the stage; electrical equipment should not be placed
on the stage; nothing should block the back wall painted pine tree,
since this is considered part of the theatre space itself rather than
a scenic ornament. This
prevented the easiest and most obvious set-up, projecting from a hidden
device at stage center to the back wall of the theatre.
The balcony-like extended area where
the chorus normally sits seemed the next appropriate place for the screen.
Angling it towards the front of the stage allowed us to project from
a stand set up in front of the stage. An elliptical correction was added
so that the prepared images would not be distorted by the acute angle.
The consequence of greater clarity of the image meant, however, a diminishment
in projecting illumination.
The initial plan was to project images only for the two dance scenes:
Yet when not in use for these two, six-minute scenes the large screen would have caused modern and synthetic disturbance to the tranquility of the worn, dark wood and painted greenery of the century-old stage. We considered projecting a photograph of the wall itself when the screen was not used for the two dance scenes, but then decided to take advantage of the challenge to create a third (virtual) space for related still and moving images.
Thus the third wall became an expression
of the Lady Macbeth’s mind.
The looping shots were meant to coincide, but not precisely with the onstage action. The effect of simultaneous images and live action were found at times effective, at times disruptive of the flow of the play:
These six scenes were organized and
manipulated by `Screen Manager`, a software program developed by systems
designer Shiba Masahito for the production, that allowed an operator
to shift from text/still image/moving image/pre-set CG animations manipulated
from the computer set at stage front, connected to the projector. The
Screen Manager operator became less technical assistant than a fellow
performer, responding as the actors and musicians did to physical and
verbal cues form the actors.
3D ANIMATED COMPUTER GRAPHIC CHOREOGRAPHY
The normal give-and-take collaboration of any new dance choreography was here complicated by the third `dancer.` Experienced with ballet, contemporary dance, and rhythmic gymnastics motion-capture, Asako Soga’s contribution to Sleep no More was to create and operate an animated computer-graphic dancer as Witch, and another as Ghost. Soga’s Motion Lab has many hundreds of hours of archived motion-capture data of ballet and contemporary dancers, used for comparative analysis and creative projects (Soga, Umino, Hirayama 2009). She employs an original Web 3D Dance Composer, an original software program that allows for choreography of motion-capture data according to pre-set algorithms of floor pattern and body movements, pace, direction, and transitions. The exoskeleton is then modeled in skin, hair, and costume, a laborious and difficult process (the natural motions of sleeves and hair are especially problematic). The resulting 3D CG dance avatar can then be manipulated 360 degrees, shown from any size, speed, or angle.
Dance construction: Witch trio
The Witch trio featured a virtual Witch
with two dancers experienced in adapting to various styles of performers
in collaborations: Korean contemporary dancer/choreographer Shin Eun-Ju
(http://www.shineunju.net/) and Japanese-Swiss modern/Japanese dancer/choreographer Heidi S. Durning (http://www.lucbouvrette.com/
Soga then fashioned the selected patterns into a dance of one minute of unison dancing, created automatically through algorithms of pacing and flow on the virtual dancer, then copied by the two living dancers in rehearsals. Durning and Shin then followed this virtual/actual trio with solos and duets in various combinations. The common denominator of movement patterns established within the constraints of unison dancing in the first section gave way to individual interpretations of direction, pace, feeling, and tension. The pre-recorded virtual choreography was created to match the CD recording of Bartok. While this allowed the dancers and virtual-choreographer to practice independently, it also meant that no changes in the projected images were possible during the performance. Please see a short video clip showing scenes of the Witches Trio and Ghost dances, including music by Virtual Witch, Hirayama Motoko shoulder drum Hisada Shunichiro and flautist Edo Seiichiro.
Soga’s automatic dance choreography
until then had mainly been employed for educational purposes (http://www.motionlab.jp/).
Therefore the ease of the movements, repeated variations, and ability
of students to memorize their combinations were important aims. In
Sleep no More, however, she realized that for the virtual dancer
solo, a variety of different movements would be interesting, ones that
need not be memorized or made easy for others to follow. And unlike
the live dancers, who must always stay grounded by gravity to the floor,
the virtual dancer was free to make leaps, turns and rolls without regard
to the rectangular frame of stage `floor`
upon which the screen rested.
CONCEPTION, DECEPTION, RECEPTION
Since we were fostering a new set of conventions through the projected image and live dancers, entrances were vital to establish the fact that actual and virtual images were sharing a similar otherworldly space. The screen projections featured three small figures walking `closer`, growing larger. We then attempted a sort of `sleight of hand`: when the two virtual Witches `left` the bottom corners of the screen, the two actual dancers entered individually from stage right (bridgeway curtain) and stage-left side-door. Yet so spread out spatially were the Witches, and so physically different were the actual and flat virtual images, it seems that few spectators were able to grasp the intended effect of spirits emerging miraculously from screen to stage.
Once the two actual dancers reached the main stage alongside the virtual dancer on screen, we encountered the problem of proportional size and accessibility. Although the virtual dancer was human-sized, since it was set against the back wall, for most of the spectators it appeared 2/3 or less the size of the living dancers. During duets and especially trios, the live dancers were consciously playing off each others’ movements and improvisations center stage, but often ignoring or abandoning the left side screen dance. During rehearsals I had to push them, `let her play with you! Don’t ignore her!` However they were naturally reluctanr to interact because the image was to the side, out of their natural sightline, as well as non-responsive (a pre-recorded animation). Their hesitation also had a practical consideration: if they approached too close, they would cut between the projected image and the screen. Later Durning said she wished there had been more rehearsal time, so that she might learn to break strategically the projection space with her arm or leg, casting shadows on the screen that would provide further interaction.
Durning, trained in classical Japanese dance as well as modern technique, felt that her base in `fusion` expression, close to Shin’s, was so different from the ballet/contemporary forms of Hirayama, that there was little room for collaboration on stage. With Western dance-wear rather than the long sleeves of Korean or Japanese traditional forms, the Witches’ dance seemed merely modern and clean, as opposed to the more grounded, dynamic presence of Asian dancers. Since the three Witches were supposed to be `weird sisters`, this lack of harmony and consistency among them was disconcerting.
`Waiting` proved difficult to express
virtually. The dynamic stillness of `movement within stillness/stillness
within movement` is essential to many Japanese traditional arts, especially
the noh theatre, where a masked dancer might sit still at stage center
for nearly an hour while the character’s tale is narrated. Yet during the solos and duets, while
the living actors could kneel or squat, showing by their breathing or
eye movements that they were alive and aware of others, it was difficult
for the virtual dancer to maintain presence while merely kneeling.
Perhaps greater neck or eye movements for the avatar, or expanded ribcage
simulating breathing, would be necessary to achieve parity with living
dancers’ dynamically still presence.
GHOST DUO REAL-TIME IMPROVISATIONS
In the Witch trio, the taped Bartok quartet
and pre-recorded animated dance constrained the living dancers’ improvisation
by privileging the virtual choreography. As contrast, for a scene in
which Lady Macbeth’s Ghost beckons the living Lady Macbeth (played
by the masked noh actor Matsui Akira), we used three strands of simultaneous
improvisation: Lady Macbeth; the flute, playing Takemitsu Toru’s short
solo Voice; the Ghost, created in real-time by operator Soga,
improvising both to the music and to noh dance. This was a more practical
than aesthetic decision: for the masked noh actor, reacting to the image
of the virtual dancer would have been impossible, given the narrow tunnel
of vision available through the eyeholes of the female mask. Takemitsu’s
compositions include no fixed measure, and many notations for pauses,
which allowed flautist Edo to easily adapt to Matsui’s dance.iv
The first step was to create an appropriate
Ghost character. Soga and her team at the Motionlab created a Ghost
avatar by clothing the skeleton in a mask-like neutral face, with a
long-sleeved kimono, holding a candle. The swirls and folds of the sleeve,
as with the Witch’s flouncing and swinging hair, proved particularly
difficult to create. The Ghost wasn’t meant to be an exact double
of Lady Macbeth: whereas the living Lady Macbeth’s feet slid along
the stage-floor, the Ghost soared and swooped, turning, pointing, and seeming to observe,
while actually reflecting the noh actor’s movements.
Virtual choreographer/operator Soga watched
Matsui’s rehearsal dance and selected patterns of relatively slow
dance forms already archived from motion-capture of contemporary dancers
She chose nine movements from her data archive that used a stable torso
with limited arm movements, in order to be apt for the kimono. These
nine patterns had three fixed poses of starting and ending, allowing
for natural transitions between segments. During rehearsals and then
in performance, Soga attempted to time the choice of and shifts in patterns
to the noh actor’s movements. In practice this often meant following
the lead of the musician, to which the noh actor was also responding.
The result of this trio of improvising artists was an occasional coalescence
that may occur in any live collaboration, when all performers are listening
and responding to each other as an organic unit.
The noh actor, as will be discussed in
more detail below, found the scene challenging to perform, given the
constraints on the stage space and necessity to create a tension with
a virtual actor. When facing forward, he could not see the screen at
all; only when actually facing it could he see what the Ghost was `leading
him` to do. Therefore it was up to choreogapher/operator Soga to anticipate
Lady Macbeth’s movements and react/lead from the Ghost’s movements.
In practice, this meant that both reacted to the musicians’ crescendos,
breathy screeches, and shouts (the flute score [http://g.sheetmusicplus.com/
The cumulative effect of the virtual
and live stimulation of language and music proved difficult for many
spectators. The normal multi-media of noh acting and dance was multiplied
in various ways in this production: the use of recorded and live music,
actual and virtual actors, Shakespeare and noh staging, contemporary
and traditional noh dance. And in a strategic error of producing, we
distributed programmes including the bilingual script as well as précis
of the scenes, creating yet another area for distraction (we followed
noh custom in leaving houselights dimly on). Those lacking a fundamental
tolerance for temporary confusion were certainly discomfited, burying
their heads in the script or summaries.
An evaluation was distributed, and reports
written by many of the 150 spectators. Audience response seemed to bear
out the mixed success of this interaction: those who found that they
could imagine the virtual actor as real as the living one, many noted
this Ghost dance as particularly effective. Yet the normal diversity
of opinion of any artwork was made explicitly more diverse by the intercultural
fusion, and practical considerations . Opinions of any two spectators
may be even more divided in a production whose reception depends so
much on where one is sitting, so reliant on specific prior knowledge
(of Shakespeare, multi-media performance, live theatre, noh).
In terms of the project’s goals, I
felt that we were successful in bridging the live/virtual gap. According
to the statistical outcome, over 60% of the audience found it possible
at least at times to treat virtual and actual actors on the same level.
The Ghost dance was found far more successful than the Witches’ dance,
partially because the movements were slower and easier to follower,
partially because the virtual Ghost was more recognizable within the
story. Individual comments noted the difficulty of following both screen
and stage simultaneously. A few were too confused by the fragmented
story to enjoy the performance: one opined that as long as we had screens,
why not project subtitles or explanatory notes! In terms of a balance
of actual/virtual, another complaint, ironically, was that the video
and 3D CG images appeared more real than the otherworldly dance of the
living masked noh actor. One of the most haunting images for me was
the video of the washing of hands behind the paper screen, appropriately
real but distanced as shadows. Perhaps balance, consistency, and harmony
are not proper goals for such a multi-media experiment; rather we should
aim for an expressive, disequilibrium of conflicting dynamic parts.
An Actor REFLECTS
The range of audience responses was not
surprising to noh master Matsui, interviewed two months after the performance
(Wakayama, Sept 23 2009):
`Those familiar with TV and videogames will naturally pay more attention to the screen images, while traditional theatre regulars will find the projected images disruptive. Given spectators’ natural proclivities and tastes, this mixed-media style will find it difficult to please all audiences, at least at first.`
Still, Matsui felt that the future of
noh would involve many more such experiments. With more rehearsal time
and planning, an on-stage actor could disappear, only to reappear immediately
inside the screen, creating a wealth of new possibilities. Although
admitting that it might be difficult for a masked and heavily-costumed
actor to actually control the images, Matsui hoped that, rather than
allow projected images to become mere extensions of spectacular scenery,
the sort of co-existence in stage space hinted at in Sleep no More
should be continued.
I assumed that Matsui might feel somewhat
threatened by the technological constraints and occasional virtual upstaging,
being accustomed as he was to being the lead as well as implicit director
for a production. Yet Matsui was untroubled by the new situation. Just
as often noh musicians and chorus express the feelings of the noh actor,
who sits quietly at stage center, Matsui found the screen to be less
a rival for spectator attention than a more dynamic separate self. Unlike
previous Noho productions, where he was the continuous center of attention,
Matsui discovered here that he could sit and allow the screen images
to convey his `split spirit.` He likened the bifurcation of Lady Macbeth’s
personality to the noh play Aoi no Ue, in which the `living spirit`
(Ikiryou) of the jealous Lady Komachi appears on stage as a character
coming out from but not controlled by the living Lady Aoi. However,
he warned that, without detailed cues and sufficient rehearsal time,
the screen and living actor would create separate realities, since fine
adjustments to cues would be necessary for the live/virtual duo to function
For Matsui, this dynamic passivity is
largely one of mind-set:
`If I think about the screen as moving
FOR me, somehow magically, that I am leading it, manipulating it, then
I don’t need to move in relation to it. I just change my thinking:
I am controlling the image as part of my spirit. It makes it easy to
sit and let it play.`
Yet since this meant his role was reduced,
he felt more like an ingredient given to the director/chef to cook with,
or a movie actor, who only has a partial awareness of the whole, which
might take total shape only in the editing process. Thus for Matsui,
this diminishment of his normal role from performer/director to accompanying
player was in fact somewhat liberating.
Noh is dependent on spectator’s imaginations
for completion. Minimal set and properties, abstract dance and poetic
language create a tone-poem of dramatic action that must be `read` by
knowledgeable audiences. Noho adapted Shakespeare’s Macbeth
into a short, dense memory-play of related images of blood, birth, water,
and hell. Embellishing these spoken words with animated and video images,
accompanied by live and recorded classical and traditional noh music,
providing competing parallel media tracks that some found disturbing.
As far as tampering with the ancient dance-theatre noh, one might well
heed the physician’s imperative to `do no harm` summarized in the
vernacular, `if it ain’t broken, don’t fix it.`
Yet I feel that Sleep no More’s
mixed results resulted in some clear paths to improved performances
as outlined above. Spectators accustomed in their daily lives and entertainment
to multi-tasking multi-media games, video, and Avatar-like contemporary
entertainment media will increasingly seek technological supplements
to the slow, opaque, dynamic stillness of noh. Amplifying and layering
the experience of live noh performance with virtual actors and atmospheres
such as those supplied by Sleep no More may be dismissed by purists
as distracting and even degrading the classic forms. Yet more detailed
modeling of avatars, greater inter-activity of choreography controlled
somehow directly by the dancer, projected on multiple screens of thoroughly
integrated images may help usher new Noh audiences into the 21st
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• Coldiron, Margaret (2007)
`Cross-Cultural Connections, Confluences and Contradictions in Masked
PerformanceThe Body and Mask in Ancient Theatre Space Project,` Didaskalia
• Furukawa, Kohei, Choi Wong, Kozaburo Hachimura, and Kaori Araki (2006) `CG Restoration of a Historical Noh Stage and Its Use for Edutainment,` 103-112. International Symposium: Human Body Motion Analysis with Motion Capture. Dec 1-2 2006, Kyoto Art Entertainment Innovation Research, Ritsumeikan University.
• Komparu, Kunio (1986) Noh: Principles and Perspectives. Kodansha Tokyo.
• Salz, Jonah (1996) `East Meets West Meets Hamlet: Get Thee to a Noh Master,`149-163, in Judy Lee Oliva, ed. New Theatre Vistas. NY: Garland.
• Salz (2003) `Leonard’s Bastard Son: The Noho Theatre Group’s First Two Decades`: 135- 153 in Carol Davis, ed. in Theatre East and West Revisited.Mime Journal.
• Soga Asako, Bin Umino, Motoko
Hirayama (2009): 171-176 `Automatic composition for contemporary dance
using 3d motion clips,` Cyberworlds.
teaches comparative theatre at the Faculty of Intercultural Communication
at Ryukoku University outside Kyoto, Japan. Founder and Artistic Director
of the Noho Theatre Group since 1981, he has directed 25 plays by Euripides,
Shakespeare, Yeats, Beckett, and Mishima Yukio collaborating with noh-kyogen
actors and musicians. He is Program Director for Traditional Theatre
Training in Kyoto (http://www.kac.or.jp/ttt). Translations include Mishima Yukio, traditional
kyogen, and adaptations for video introductions, THIS IS NOH and THIS
IS KYOGEN. He is co-editor of a special issue on kyogen for Asian Theatre
Journal Vol.23, No 1 (Spring 2007). He received a Ph.d. in Performance
Studies, and been a visiting researcher at SOAS and Wesleyan University.
ASAKO SOGA is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Media Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ryukoku University. She received her B.E. in Engineering from Ibaraki University in 1999, her M.E. in Human Informatics from Nagoya University in 2001, and her Ph.D. in Human Informatics from Nagoya University in 2004. Recipient of the First Digital Contents Symposium Funai Award from Funai Foundation for Information Technology in 2005, her research interests include human animation, virtual reality, user interface and their applications for artistic media. Currently she is working on human animation systems for dance using motion captured data.
MASAHITO SHIBA is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Media Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ryukoku University. He received his Ph.D. in Engineering from Ritumeikan University in Kyoto. His research interests include operating systemS, distributed systemS and real-time systems. Currently he is working on interactive systems for handling multimedia streams.